Look on algorithms behind Natural Language Processing (NLP).

How does natural language processing works?

  1. Linguistics camp
  2. Statistics camp.
  • Algorithms can be simple as Vector Space Model where text can be represented as vector and data can be obtained by vector operations. Embedding is one such use case.
  • Inference driving algorithms such as Frequent item set is one such use case, where you can look into text corpus and try to make inference about what would come next.
  • Relevance ranking algorithms used in search engine such as Tf-IDF, BM25, pagerank, etc.
  • There are algorithms which are used understand meaning out of texts. Like Latent semantic analysis (LSA) , Probabilistic Semantic analysis (pLSA) and Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA).
  • There are algorithms which try to derive sentiments, context and subject of written text. Like sentiment analysis is very popular as it tries to associate some sentiment value to the unknown words.
  • Also, in recent time there are deep learning models/algorithms which uses statistical methods to process tokens using multilayer ANNs.

Coreference resolution:

  • Distance: which can be computed as number of sentences between the two words. (more the distance we can say the words are less coreferential).
  • Pronoun: determines whether candidate pairs are pronouns, one of them is, or none.
  • String Match: which can be defined as the overlap between the two words. ( “Prime Minister XXX” and “The Prime Minister” can be considered coreferential).
  • Number Agreement: which defines whether candidate pair of words are singular, both plural, or neither.
  • Semantic Class Agreement: which defines whether candidate pair of words are of the same semantic class, if any. (“Person”, “Organization”, etc.).
  • Gender Agreement: can be defined as whether candidate pair of words are of the same gender, if any. (“Male”, “Female”, “Neither”).
  • Appositive: defines whether candidate pair of words are appositives (Say, If a sentence starts with “The Nepali President, XXX said…”, then “President” and “XXX” are appositives and are probably coreferential).
  • ..and a few more similar features.

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